Why is the white doll the good doll? In a study of kindergarten children, both black children and white chidlren chose the white doll as their favorite. Blacks and whites alike have been programmed since birth to think that whites are better. Black children are taught to be aware of their behavior at all times, because of possible danger, while white kids have the privilege of just being kids.
I’m so glad for this news. It somewhat makes up for the various discussions and remembrances at the time of the observance last August of the 50th anniversary of March on Washington that mentioned Rustin’s role only a little (as if minor) or not at all. As someone who has studied Rustin and admires him, despite some of what happened later in his life, I was distressed, or shall I even admit “angry”, about these “slights”. It is well known that at that time he often stayed in the background
because of his homosexuality and the fear that accusations about that would impede
the work on civil rights.
Here I just want to point out a few things in his life that put it into perspective regarding the history of 20th century campaigns for civil rights. (I have spent too much time studying Rustin’s very complex life to be able to write about him briefly.)
Some remarks follow these 6 points and a fairly complete timeline is at the end. There’s also a partial bibliography.
Rustin was an activist from high school days in Chester, PA.
1. In 1936 he became a Quaker, declared himself a pacifist and in 1944 refused
to be drafted or do alternative service and spent 3 years in jail for it.
2. In 1941, with A. Philip Randolph as his mentor, together they planned
a March on Washington against racial discrimination in war-related
industries and told President Roosevelt they would carry out the march if he
did not establish Fair Employment. They also wanted the armed forces to be
integrated. Roosevelt responded with Fair Employment but not integration.
The march was cancelled. (This is 22 years before the march we remember.)
3. In 1942 he, with others, were beaten for sitting in the front of an interstate
bus in the south. (14 years later, Rosa Parks sat in the front of the bus in
4. In 1948 Randolph and Rustin threaten President Truman with a March
on Washington if the armed forces are not desegregated. Truman orders
5. In 1963 various civil rights leaders meet to start planning a March on
Washington for Jobs and Justice. Rustin becomes the lead organizer.
After the passage of the Civil Rights act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965
Rustin changed course and believed in working with the government to achieve his
goals rather than protesting in the streets. This change alienated his fellow activists
and there was never again the kind of common goal with common efforts to achieve
them that there had been.
Editors note: Bayard Rustin was the subject of a program at Princeton Public Library that was cosponsored by Not in Our Town.
In celebration of Bayard Rustin’s having been awarded a posthumous Medal of Freedom, here is part of what Ann Yasuhara wrote for his 100th birthday for the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting (Quakers) event.
There were underlying dreams that lasted throughout BRs adult life, but they often
came into conflict because the social realities. So, many times he had to make
extremely painful choices depending on the situation at hand as he read it. (As
activists, we can definitely identify with these kinds of situations.)
The Main Themes/goals were:
Economic justice/equality (socialism).
To Rustin, these were not in conflict, but actually all of a piece. And, I think they are.
But in real situations where he was involved in trying to make them happen, he
often had to sacrifice one (or more) to make progress with another. In particular, it
was very difficult to focus on economic equality (actually inequality). As has often
been the case, it got sacrificed – as it still does – to an argument about which is more
basic: racial equality or economic equality? Further, as bad as racial inequality is, it
has been easier to talk about than to try to address economic inequality. Economic
inequality has been almost buried – hard to get talked about in the general public.
This is an important point of 2012 – finally, thanks to the Occupy movement,
economic inequality is part of the public discourse. Nothing can be done about it if it
isn’t a category that people have in their minds and are able to talk about.
The Internal Conflicts that he faced and knew he was facing were the pressures
thoughtful people often face:
Moral Purity vs Pragmatic Compromise.
Being an outsider vs being an insider
Long term dreams vs short term gains
Unlike many radicals he came to believe that government that a real democracy
could realize his dreams/goals. He had seen what the government did toward
achieving economic equality during the Roosevelt era and that made him think
it would be just the first step. National state as employer as in the WPA. Faith in
the power of goverment to improve, even save, lives. He became more and more a
believer in “big government liberalism”.
He also believed in and was a master builder of coalitions – which also brought
his underlying dreams into conflict as well as internal conflicts. This showed up
many times, often when it was a question of civil rights (equality for blacks in a
white society) and economic equality for all (which he thought could be brought
about by the labor unions). This particular problem arose in the design of the March
anniversary observance of his march on Washington – between incorporating some more conventional groups like the NAACP and involving some young radicals like John Lewis.
Historically he was inspired by these Americans: Jefferson (declaration of
independence),Thoreau (civil disobedience), Lincoln (ability of ordinary Americans
to govern themselves), Whitman (quest for true American community), DeBois
(legal & political rights of African Americans), Debs (American socialist – rough
equivalence of economic conditions for all; labor unions). He was also inspired by
Gandhi whom he went to visit but arrived after Gandhi’s assassination.
There are several books about Rustin and a DVD. He was also a beautiful writer
(and singer). These are what I am familiar with:
DVD “Brother Outsider”
Books about Rustin:
“Bayard Rustin, American Dreamer”, Jerald Podair
“Lost Prophet: the Life and Times of Bayard Rustin”, John D’Emilio
“Bayard Rustin:Troubles I’ve Seen: a biography”, Jervis Anderson
Books of Rustin’s writings:
“I Must Resist: Bayard Rustin’s Life in Letters”, Michel G. Long, ed
“Time On Two Crosses: Collected Writings of Bayard Rustin”, Carbado & Weiss eds.
In celebration of Bayard Rustin’s having received the posthumous Mdal of Freedom on November 20, 2013, this is one of a series of posts compiled by Ann Yasuhara.
Timeline for Bayard Rustin (1912-1987)
1912, March 17: Born in West Chester, Pennsylvania.
Childhood: Brought up by his grandparents; grandmother is a social activist and a
Quaker; many prominent blacks visit the Rustin home including W.E.B.DuBois. BR
has a great talent for music; music remains important throughout his life; he was a
1932: Graduates with honors from West Chester High School where he had been an
outstanding scholar and athlete in track and football. During high school years he
organizes sit-ins in local segregated restaurants and theaters. (In 2006 a new high
school, the Bayard Rustin High School, opens in West Chester.)
1932, Sept: Goes to Wilberforce University in Ohio on a music scholarship. The food
is terrible so he organizes a protest by students; objects to ROTC; administration
asks him to leave the school.
1934: Drops out of W.U. and enrolls at Cheyney State Teachers College, near West
1936: Officially declares himself a Quaker and pacifist.
1936: Leaves Cheyney State without a degree.
1937: Moves to New York City and becomes part of the Harlem black culture scene.
1938: Enrolls at City College of New York.
1940: Joins the Young Communist League (YCL).
1940 winter-1941 spring: Works with A. Philip Randolph to plan a March on
Washington Movement against racial discrimination in defense industries and
armed forces. When Pres. Roosevelt bans discrimination in war-related industries
and establishes a Fair Employment Practice Committee to monitor compliance, but
does not desegregate the armed forces, Randolph cancels the march, though BR
disagrees. BR and Randolph will be important to each other henceforth.
1941, summer: Quits YCL; fall: joins the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR) and
under A.J. Muste who was a leader in non-violent activism. Randolph and Muste
were BR’s most important mentors over the years.
1942: FOR launches the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) that is dedicated to
using nonviolent direct action to achieve racial integration in American society; BR
becomes one of its leaders.
1942: Beaten and arrested for riding in the front of a bus from Louisville to
1944: Sentenced to 3 years in Federal prison for refusing alternative service as a
conscientious objector to war.
1944 Feb – 1946 June: While serving his time in prison, BR organizes protests
against racial segregation in the prisons.
1947: Volunteers for the CORE sponsored Journey of Reconciliation ride – mixed
race ride on buses through the south to test compliance with the new Federal ruling
against segregation on interstate transportation; beaten and arrested in Chapel Hill
NC for taking part in this action.
1948: Randolph and BR threaten Pres. Truman with a March on Washington if the
military is not desegregated. In July Truman issues an executive order prohibiting
discrimination in the military and the march is canceled.
1948: Travels to India to meet Gandhi’s followers; Gandhi had recently been
1949, spring: BR serves 22 days on a chain gang in NC for engaging in civil
disobedience during the Journey of Reconciliation. His writing about it led to the
abolition of the chain gang in NC.
1953: Arrested in California on morals charge (in connection with homosexuality)
and sentenced to 60 days in LA county Jail; resigns position with FOR; joins the War
Resisters League (WRL).
1954: Brown vs. Board of Education – Supreme Court rules that schools cannot be
1956, Feb: Joins MLK in Montgomery for bus boycott and counsels MLK in the
practice of nonviolent direct action. Fearing that his past morals charge will weaken
their work, BR quickly leaves Montgomery, continuing his support from the North.
1956: Montgomery bus boycott ends successfully.
1956, Dec-1957 Jan: Participates in formation of the Southern Christian
1958, spring: Travels to Europe for nuclear disarmament campaigns.
1959: Adam Clayton Powell publicly criticizes BR’s influence on MLK; privately
threatens to spread rumors that BR and MLK have a sexual relationship. MLK severs
ties with BR for a while.
1961: Travels to Africa to work with independence movements in Tanzania and
1961-2: BR and Malcolm X engage in a series of debates.
1962: Randolph and BR discuss the possibility of a March on Washington for civil
rights and economic justice.
1963, spring: MLK leads civil rights campaign in Birmingham.
1963, July & Aug: Civil rights leaders meet to start planning the March on
Washington for Jobs and Freedom; BR becomes the lead organizer.
1963, Aug 28: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom – 250,000 participate in
the largest nonviolent protest march in nation’s history.
1964, Feb: BR organizes student-teacher boycott to protest segregation in NYC
1964, July: Civil Rights Act passed.
1964, Aug: BR urges Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party to accept the Johnson
administration’s “compromise” proposal for seating its delegates. This angered (and
still does) many in the civil rights movement.
1965: Resigns from the WRL.
1965: Publishes “From Protest to Politics”, in Commentary, which stands as BR’s
explanation of what seemed to most to be a very significant change in tactics and
1965, Aug: Voting Rights Act is signed into law by Pres. Johnson in the presence of
BR. Henceforth, BR is part of the Johnson “team” because he believes that with the
Democratic Party in power, his dream for America will come true. To stay on the
team, he cannot take a stand against the war in Vietnam, even though he strongly
opposes it. He does think that the heavy focus against the war is an unnecessary
diversion from the important work of establishing a more just economy.
1965, Aug: Watts riots; other city riots follow, including Newark.
1966: The A. Philip Randolph Institute is established by trade unionists and civil
rights activists seeking real equality. BR becomes its executive secretary and is
involved with it for many years.
1966: BR and MLK take very different paths.
1968, April 4: MLK is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
1968: Is involved in NYC decentralization of schools controversy and sides with the
white dominated UFT teachers union, thus alienating the black community.
1970’s-80’s: Works for Freedom House, a pro-democracy organization that is
strongly anti-Communist, and the International Rescue Committee, which assists
refugees around the world.
1977: Meets Walter Naegle, who will be his partner for the rest of his life.
1980: Begins to speak out in favor of gay rights.
1984: Arrested for civil disobedience with the striking Clerical and Technical
Employees at Yale University soon after receiving an honorary degree.
1985-6: Lobbies New York City government on behalf of a gay rights bill, which is
Last years: BR visits Zimbabwe, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Chile, Paraguay, Haiti and
other countries always trying to foster freedom and human rights.
1987, August 23: Dies of heart failure in New York City at age 75
2013, November 20: Awarded Medal of Honor by President Barack Obama